Russia is the largest country in the Europe from both size and population. It is the largest country in the world in size .officially is called the Union of Soviet socialist Republic. Officially, Russia has four state religion namely Islam, Christianity, Buddhism and Ihudism. Moscow is the capital and Vladivostok is the largest city of Russia.
The early history of Russian, like those of many countries is one of migrating peoples and ancient kingdom. The origin of the Russia state coincides with the arrival of Scandanavian traders and warriors ,the Vararangiam is 9th century. One of their leader , Rurik , established himself peaceably at Novgorod by 862 and founded a dynasty namely Russor Rhos . In 882 his successor ,oleg moves capital to kiev ,in present day Ukraine, which remained the capital of Kleven Rus until 1169. Christianity was made the state religion by Vladimir 1(reigned 980-1015), who adopted (988-89) the Greek orthodox rite. Thus Byzantine cultural influence became prominent. After the seat of yaroslave (reigned 1019-54), kieven Rus was devided in a rotation system among his sons. In 1169, kiev was stormed by the Suzdal prince Andrei Bogo lubsky, who made Vladimir the capital of the grand ducky. In 1237-40 the Mongols (Tatars) under Batu Khaninvadede Russia and destroyed all the chief Russian cities except Novgorod and Pskov. Tatary established the empire of the Golden Horde. In 1271, Moscow becomes capital of Grand Ducky of Suzdal-vladimir. In 1380, Dimitri Donskoi defeats Tatars and takey title ‘Grand Duke of Moscow’ . Under Ivan III(1462-1505) and his successor, vasily III (1505-33),the Muscovite state expanded, and its rulery became more absolute . Having married the niece of the last Byzantive emperor,Ivan considered Moscow the ‘third Rome’ and himself heir to the tradition of the Byzantine empire. Ivan IV(reigned 1533-84) expands autocracy and land the basis for the colonization and annexation of Serbia .In 1547 , at the age of 17was crowned the first czar of all Russia .
With the death of Boris in 1605 (reigned 1598-1605) began ‘Time of Troubles’ In 1609 Poland invades Russia. In 1613,Michael Romanov becomes czar and thus began the Romanov dynasty which ruled Russia until 1917. Russia in the 17th century was still medieval in culture and outlook, and it was not regarded as a member of the European community of nations. In its economic development it was centuries behind western Europe, distrust of foreign ways and innovations kept its inhabitants ignorant and isolated.
During the reign (1689-1725) of peter 1, Russia’s first emperor, Russian politics, administration and culture were altered considerably. He create modern European power, promotes Western culture and builds st.Petersbury as new capital of Russia. Peter’s wife Catherine II(regined 1762-1796) turm Russia into one of strongest power in continental Europe. In 1812,Napoleaon invades Russia and took Moscow, but his army was repulsed and nearly annihilated in the winter of that year. Napoleon’s downfall and peace settlement made Russia and Australia the leading powers on the continent at the head of the holly Alliance.
During the second half of the 19th century ,Russia continued its territorial expansion, and industrialization was accelerated. Russia’s loses of Russo-Japanese War(1904-5) led to the Revolution of 1905. Nicholas II was forced to grant a constitution and a parliament was established. Soon, however, the new democratic freedom were curtailed, as the government again become reactionary. Inflation, food shortages and poor morale among the troops contributed to the outbreak of the Bolshevik take control. In1917, Russia was officially proclaimed the Russian Soviet federated socialist Republic. In march 1918, Russia ended its involvement in world War I by signing the humiliating treaty of Brest-Litovsk under which it lost must territory to the central powers. In 1941,German invades Russia and thus Russia enters into the WWII. In 1945, WW II ends. The Soviet union emerged from WW II considerably stronger that it had been before the war. It had gained considerable territory and now ranked as one of the two great world powers along with the United States. Russia is the permanent member of the UNO’S security council. Soviet explodes atomic device in 1949. In 1961,Soviets launch world’s first manned apace flight. The regime of president Mikhail Gorbachev marked the end of seven decades of soviet rule. He attempts to improve faltering economy with glasnost and perestroika. In 1991, Soviet Union disintegrates, 14 former republics become independent nations. Boris elitism way appointed as Russia’s president. Under yeltism, Russia declared its sovereignty and began to challenge the central government authority. He privatizes state run enterprises, guarantees free press, businessmen, mobsters begin to take over economy. But the economy continued to suffer from serious malfunctions including a weak banking system and wide spread corruption. Russian stock market crashes in 1998. In 1999, yeltsin replaced step shin with Vladimir putin as prime minister. After a series of terrorist bombing in Moscow and elsewhere that were blamed on Chechen militants, Putin launched an invasion on Chechnya. That action bolstered his popularity, as did a slight upturn in the economy due to rising prices oil, Russia’s most important export. In 2000, Putin elected as president. He took different measures to stabilize the situation. At present he is going on through his third period as president (2000-2004,2004-2008) and 2012-present. Now Russia is one of the most powerful country in the world.
Russia at a glance:
Total population is 143,600,000
The name of the currency of Russia is Russian ruble (RUB)
Russian is the official language. There are 27 other co-official languages.
Capital City: Moscow
Largest City: Moscow
Demonym : Russian
Anthem: ” Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiysky Federatsil”
Government : Federal semi-presidential Constitutional republic
International Calling Code : +7
(UTC+3 to +12)